จำหน่ายเกจวัดแรงดัน Pressure Gauge ทุกยี่ห้อ


Across many types of products in quite so much of industries, the apply of combining assorted components from numerous assets around the world is the rule, not the exception. Should this be a priority for a management valve user? For example, when an finish user discovers that a quantity of parts are being made in China (Figure 1), ought to the person worry about the quality?
When dealing with a major valve vendor, the answer is “no.” There shouldn’t be any room for doubt when the seller has a quantity of checks and balances in place specializing in product high quality to ensure control valves function as designed, need minimal maintenance, perform safely and function inside environmental laws.
Yet, regardless of such efforts by the seller, a control valve person may have questions on global sourcing and the nation of origin. This article discusses how one major management valve vendor ensures product high quality. Many other control valve vendors follow the same or related procedures.
Quality specification brings global assurance
Emerson enforces a complete high quality specification for its Fisher management valves that have to be met by suppliers of pressure-containing and structural metal castings. The quality specification consists of greater than a dozen requirements that apply to the next areas:
Supplier qualification
Welding procedures
Marking inspection and testing
Tryout and sample castings
Production castings
Certification of compliance
Supplier qualification — Suppliers bear a rigorous qualification course of. The process completely investigates a possible supplier’s ability to meet material specs and relevant international codes and requirements — as properly as specific necessities associated to part manufacture. In the case of castings, a foundry is taken into account “qualified” when it passes a important evaluation by Fisher’s engineers.
The foundry must show a record of qualification by a third-party inspection company and conform to numerous requirements, such as ISO 9001:2000, ASME, A2LA, PED and others. It must cross a evaluation of its quality program in addition to on-site audits of the foundry’s processes and procedures corresponding to welding, heat therapy and non-destructive examination. Additional proof of performance is decided by analysis of tryout castings to confirm specs are met.
Welding procedures — Welding is used during the manufacturing and upgrading of castings, similar to when radiographic examination is required. Welding necessities state that procedures and welder qualifications must meet ASME Section IX (or EN ISO 15614-1 and ISO 9606-1) qualification requirements. Similarly, every lot of weld filler must adjust to ASME/AWS chemical analysis specs. In Europe, compliance should be to EN499. Weld filler should have actual chemistry.
Marking inspection and testing — Valve body castings have markings (Figure 2) that identify the foundry that poured the casting and that point out the warmth code. Material identification can also be usually proven on the body casting, corresponding to CC, CF8M, CN7M and others.
Casting checks — Emerson technicians conduct each visible inspections and mechanical tests on pressure-retaining castings.
As-cast external and inside surfaces are inspected visually for unacceptable irregularities, together with hot tears and cracks, shrink, sand inclusions, veining and rat tails. Mechanical testing entails a hydrostatic strain test to substantiate the leak tightness of a control valve’s pressure-retaining components, together with the physique and bonnet castings. The take a look at procedure includes a fixture that closes off cavities that may be pressurized in service after which subjects the part to the hydrostatic shell test pressure appropriate for the valve body material and sophistication.
เกจ์ลมsumo out the hydrostatic check pressure to use for metal and alloy valves. It’s calculated by multiplying the working stress by 1.5 and rounding to the next greater 25 psig increment. Any visually detectable weeping or leaking through the stress boundary partitions which may be a part of the valve meeting is a compulsory trigger for rejection (Figure 3).
Compliance with these specifications should be ensured, as well as with different necessities concerning materials.
Figure 2. Markings determine the foundry and materials of the valve body. These control valve our bodies have been cast at an Emerson-approved foundry in China.
Meeting material requirements
Valve casting integrity and quality begins with specs that call not only for premium materials, but also for the materials that work finest within the meant functions. These application requirements include strength and ductility as well as resistance to certain elements, including the makeup of the managed fluid, operating temperature and move velocity.
For instance, chemical composition should be controlled exactly to achieve an alloy’s meant efficiency degree. Carbon steel castings for valves intended for use in oil and gasoline functions should meet NACE SP0472 suggestions that chemical composition be controlled to lower than 0.43% carbon equivalency. The decrease carbon content material improves weldability and reduces the potential for stress cracking by hydrogen sulfide sometimes found in oil and gas manufacturing and processing applications.
Another instance of materials tied to a selected application embrace these for upstream oil and gas manufacturing. Many of those applications happen within the arctic areas of Russia and Canada. For this service, castings are ASME SA 352 Grade LCC, whereas forgings must meet ASME SA 350 Grade LF2.
Many products with world use now adjust to twin material specifications to meet ASME and European requirements. For instance, steel castings are specified and authorized to both ASME SA216 Grade WCC and EN 10213 Grade 1.0619. Emerson often adds its own stringent requirements such as the heat treating of high nickel alloys, extra demanding chemical composition or particular welding procedures.
In the previous, Emerson has supplemented conventional ASTM and ASME specs to achieve the improved corrosion-resistance levels and high temperature capabilities provided by high-nickel alloys. This is now achieved by the new ASTM specification A990, which addresses both material composition and quality.
Figure 3. Pressure-retaining components of a valve are subjected to hydrostatic testing to gauge the parts’ integrity. Visible leakage or seepage via a casting means automatic rejection.
Qualifying a foundry
As part of a prospective foundry’s qualification, Emerson inspects and checks Fisher valve castings. Non-destructive testing radiography is used as a monitoring software. ASTM A990 Class C requires radiography of the primary casting of every pattern. The acceptance criterion is Level 3 for classes A, B and C. For categories D via G, no cracking, scorching tears or inserts are allowed as specified in ASTM A990.
High-nickel alloy castings present improved efficiency in corrosive services and elevated temperatures. However, if high-nickel castings are improperly prepared, they will pose major problems, together with poor integrity, poor weldability and lower-than-expected corrosion resistance. A systematic foundry qualification process can be adopted to keep away from these casting difficulties.
The foundry must forged a 1-inch thick high-nickel check plate (Figure 4) that meets ASTM Material Specification A990. It’s difficult to solid because of the difference in cross-section between the base of the weld cavity (in the center) and the overall 1-inch thickness of the plate. The cavity of the poured plate is then full of an identical composition weld materials. The welder and process for this step must meet the requirements outlined in Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Test bars (3/8-inch thick) are cut from the plate and bent over a 1½-inch mandrel per ASTM A990 right into a U-shape.
The bars are examined closely for cracking alongside the weld heat-affected zone, casting grain boundaries or dendrite boundaries. Failure to fulfill high quality standards will end result in the disqualification of the foundry from further consideration. Casting patterns should be dedicated solely to high-nickel alloy service. Use of carbon metal or a stainless-steel pattern is unacceptable as a end result of differences in solidification properties.
Shrinkage charges for gates, risers and other equipment can differ considerably. Once the dedicated pattern equipment for every of these parts has been secured, try-out castings are poured for every pattern-alloy combination. The castings are then radiographed.
The intent is to reveal any inherent casting defects — such as shrinkage — that need to be eradicated by modifying the sample rigging.
Figure four. In a foundry analysis, a casting is full of weld filler, then sliced to yield a bar for bend testing.
A certified foundry
Emerson has used a Chinese foundry (Figure 5) to forged Fisher valve our bodies for more than a decade. After an exploratory go to by procurement and manufacturing specialists, adopted by an extensive qualification process, the foundry was accredited and has been delivering high-quality valve physique and bonnet castings to Fisher valve manufacturing websites.
To help guarantee the quality of the castings it produces, the Chinese foundry has applied worldwide standards and has obtained certifications for German TUV and CE, Norway DNV, German Lloyd’s and American ABS, and has passed international quality system certifications of ISO 9001 and QS -9000.
The foundry has been awarded Gold Medals three times consecutively within the Beijing International Casting, Forging and Industrial Boiler Expo. It has twice acquired an Excellent Supplier award from Emerson.
Figure 5. This Chinese foundry meets all specifications for casting valve our bodies.
Control valve users could be concerned once they learn sure valve components are not made in the united states or Europe, but elsewhere. Perhaps their concern stems from experience with different inferior merchandise, such as appliances, clothes or electronics made in those nations and offered online. But if the valve components are being provided to a significant control valve vendor that has gone to nice lengths to qualify the foundry or supplier, then users can be assured the valves meet all specifications.