จำหน่ายเกจวัดแรงดัน Pressure Gauge ทุกยี่ห้อ

ศูนย์รวมเครื่องมือวัดความดัน

Across many forms of merchandise in a wide range of industries, the apply of mixing assorted parts from varied sources all over the world is the rule, not the exception. Should this be a priority for a control valve user? For instance, when an finish user discovers that several components are being made in China (Figure 1), ought to the user fear concerning the quality?
When dealing with a serious valve vendor, the reply is “no.” There shouldn’t be any room for doubt when the seller has a quantity of checks and balances in place specializing in product high quality to make sure control valves operate as designed, want minimal maintenance, perform safely and operate inside environmental regulations.
Yet, despite such efforts by the seller, a control valve consumer could have questions about international sourcing and the country of origin. This article discusses how one major control valve vendor ensures product quality. ราคาเพรสเชอร์เกจ follow the same or similar procedures.
Quality specification brings international assurance
Emerson enforces a complete high quality specification for its Fisher control valves that must be met by suppliers of pressure-containing and structural steel castings. The high quality specification includes more than a dozen requirements that apply to the next areas:
Supplier qualification
Welding procedures
Marking inspection and testing
Tryout and pattern castings
Production castings
Certification of compliance
Supplier qualification — Suppliers endure a rigorous qualification course of. The process completely investigates a possible supplier’s ability to meet materials specs and relevant international codes and standards — in addition to specific requirements associated to part manufacture. In the case of castings, a foundry is taken into account “qualified” when it passes a important analysis by Fisher’s engineers.
The foundry must demonstrate a document of qualification by a third-party inspection company and conform to numerous standards, corresponding to ISO 9001:2000, ASME, A2LA, PED and others. It must cross a evaluate of its quality program as well as on-site audits of the foundry’s processes and procedures corresponding to welding, warmth therapy and non-destructive examination. Additional proof of efficiency is determined by evaluation of tryout castings to verify specifications are met.
Welding procedures — Welding is used through the manufacturing and upgrading of castings, such as when radiographic examination is required. Welding requirements state that procedures and welder qualifications should meet ASME Section IX (or EN ISO 15614-1 and ISO 9606-1) qualification standards. Similarly, every lot of weld filler should adjust to ASME/AWS chemical evaluation specifications. In Europe, compliance must be to EN499. Weld filler must have precise chemistry.
Marking inspection and testing — Valve body castings have markings (Figure 2) that determine the foundry that poured the casting and that point out the heat code. Material identification is also usually proven on the body casting, corresponding to CC, CF8M, CN7M and others.
Casting checks — Emerson technicians conduct each visible inspections and mechanical exams on pressure-retaining castings.
As-cast external and inner surfaces are inspected visually for unacceptable irregularities, together with sizzling tears and cracks, shrink, sand inclusions, veining and rat tails. Mechanical testing includes a hydrostatic stress check to verify the leak tightness of a management valve’s pressure-retaining parts, including the body and bonnet castings. The check procedure includes a fixture that closes off cavities that may be pressurized in service after which subjects the part to the hydrostatic shell test stress applicable for the valve body materials and class.
ASME B16.34 units out the hydrostatic take a look at strain to use for steel and alloy valves. It’s calculated by multiplying the working stress by 1.5 and rounding to the following higher 25 psig increment. Any visually detectable weeping or leaking by way of the strain boundary partitions that are part of the valve assembly is a compulsory cause for rejection (Figure 3).
Compliance with these specs must be ensured, as well as with different requirements relating to materials.
Figure 2. Markings identify the foundry and supplies of the valve physique. These control valve bodies had been forged at an Emerson-approved foundry in China.
Meeting material necessities
Valve casting integrity and quality begins with specs that call not just for premium materials, but in addition for the materials that work best within the intended functions. These application necessities embody power and ductility as properly as resistance to sure elements, together with the makeup of the managed fluid, working temperature and move velocity.
For occasion, chemical composition have to be managed exactly to attain an alloy’s supposed efficiency level. Carbon metal castings for valves meant for use in oil and fuel purposes should meet NACE SP0472 recommendations that chemical composition be managed to less than 0.43% carbon equivalency. The lower carbon content material improves weldability and reduces the potential for stress cracking by hydrogen sulfide usually found in oil and gasoline manufacturing and processing functions.
Another example of supplies tied to a selected software include those for upstream oil and gas production. Many of these functions happen in the arctic regions of Russia and Canada. For this service, castings are ASME SA 352 Grade LCC, while forgings must meet ASME SA 350 Grade LF2.
Many merchandise with global use now adjust to twin materials specs to meet ASME and European standards. For instance, steel castings are specified and certified to each ASME SA216 Grade WCC and EN 10213 Grade 1.0619. Emerson usually adds its personal stringent requirements similar to the heat treating of excessive nickel alloys, extra demanding chemical composition or particular welding procedures.
In the previous, Emerson has supplemented typical ASTM and ASME specifications to realize the enhanced corrosion-resistance ranges and high temperature capabilities provided by high-nickel alloys. This is now accomplished by the new ASTM specification A990, which addresses each material composition and high quality.
Figure three. Pressure-retaining parts of a valve are subjected to hydrostatic testing to gauge the parts’ integrity. Visible leakage or seepage by way of a casting means computerized rejection.
Qualifying a foundry
As a half of a prospective foundry’s qualification, Emerson inspects and checks Fisher valve castings. Non-destructive testing radiography is used as a monitoring tool. ASTM A990 Class C requires radiography of the primary casting of each pattern. The acceptance criterion is Level 3 for classes A, B and C. For categories D by way of G, no cracking, scorching tears or inserts are allowed as laid out in ASTM A990.
High-nickel alloy castings present improved performance in corrosive services and elevated temperatures. However, if high-nickel castings are improperly prepared, they’ll pose major problems, together with poor integrity, poor weldability and lower-than-expected corrosion resistance. A systematic foundry qualification process can be adopted to avoid these casting difficulties.
The foundry should forged a 1-inch thick high-nickel take a look at plate (Figure 4) that meets ASTM Material Specification A990. It’s difficult to solid due to the distinction in cross-section between the bottom of the weld cavity (in the center) and the general 1-inch thickness of the plate. The cavity of the poured plate is then full of an identical composition weld materials. The welder and process for this step should meet the requirements outlined in Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Test bars (3/8-inch thick) are reduce from the plate and bent over a 1½-inch mandrel per ASTM A990 into a U-shape.
The bars are examined intently for cracking along the weld heat-affected zone, casting grain boundaries or dendrite boundaries. Failure to satisfy quality standards will end result within the disqualification of the foundry from further consideration. Casting patterns have to be dedicated solely to high-nickel alloy service. Use of carbon metal or a stainless-steel sample is unacceptable because of differences in solidification properties.
Shrinkage rates for gates, risers and different equipment can vary significantly. Once the devoted pattern tools for each of those components has been secured, try-out castings are poured for every pattern-alloy mixture. The castings are then radiographed.
The intent is to reveal any inherent casting defects — similar to shrinkage — that have to be eliminated by modifying the sample rigging.
Figure 4. In a foundry analysis, a casting is crammed with weld filler, then sliced to yield a bar for bend testing.
A qualified foundry
Emerson has used a Chinese foundry (Figure 5) to cast Fisher valve bodies for greater than a decade. After an exploratory go to by procurement and manufacturing specialists, adopted by an in depth qualification course of, the foundry was approved and has been delivering high-quality valve body and bonnet castings to Fisher valve manufacturing websites.
To help guarantee the quality of the castings it produces, the Chinese foundry has applied international standards and has obtained certifications for German TUV and CE, Norway DNV, German Lloyd’s and American ABS, and has handed worldwide high quality system certifications of ISO 9001 and QS -9000.
The foundry has been awarded Gold Medals thrice consecutively in the Beijing International Casting, Forging and Industrial Boiler Expo. It has twice acquired an Excellent Supplier award from Emerson.
Figure 5. This Chinese foundry meets all specifications for casting valve our bodies.
Summary
Control valve customers may be involved after they learn certain valve components are not made in the us or Europe, but elsewhere. Perhaps their concern stems from expertise with other inferior products, such as appliances, clothes or electronics made in these countries and offered online. But if the valve parts are being provided to a major control valve vendor that has gone to great lengths to qualify the foundry or supplier, then customers could be assured the valves meet all specifications.
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