จำหน่ายเกจวัดแรงดัน Pressure Gauge ทุกยี่ห้อ

ศูนย์รวมเครื่องมือวัดความดัน

Representing practically 1 / 4 of the worldwide vitality combine, natural gas plays an essential function in assembly worldwide vitality needs. Throughout the pure fuel supply chain, fuel producers require accurate real-time measurement of the composition of liquid pure gas (LNG) for in-process sampling or during transport for custody switch.
pressure gauge is comprised of methane with heavier elements such as ethane, propane, butane, and trace components such as sulfur compounds and aromatics. As such, knowledge on the composition and focus of the elements within the mixture can allow producers to increase process understanding and effectivity, enhance quality, and establish the value of the product.
The AIO system works with a massive selection of contact probes suitable for LNG applications.
THE IMPORTANCE OF REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT
The need for real-time measurement begins when pure gasoline is converted into liquid form utilizing one or more compressor trains for liquefaction and purification. Rundown lines then transfer LNG streams to storage tanks. By measuring the composition within the rundown, LNG producers better perceive the product that is going into their tanks. This knowledge allows them to foretell how the LNG will age and better plan shipments by pipeline, train, and rail.
Although there are established methods used for this type of measurement, these methods sometimes require samples to be extracted for testing, with outcomes delayed for twenty minutes or longer. As a end result, Raman spectroscopy is shortly gaining traction as an environment friendly, reliable, and economical different that can produce accurate, real-time results.
RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY: THEN AND NOW
Since its discovery in the Nineteen Twenties, Raman spectroscopy has revolutionized process analysis with its nondestructive mode of operation and capability to measure sample composition. Raman spectroscopy is a laser-based optical evaluation technique used to measure compositions by way of the vibrational properties of molecules.
For many years, nevertheless, Raman gear had the popularity for being expensive, cumbersome, and tough to make use of. Now, advancements within the stability and portability of solid-state Raman systems and technological improvements in lasers, optics, and detectors have made the technique faster and extra accessible for real-time inline analysis.
As a outcome, Raman is now more and more getting used as a powerful measurement solution for LNG composition and concentration. When utilized to inline processes, Raman spectroscopy can present ends in seconds.
“Raman in the analysis of LNG composition is an important development,” says Martin Mendez, lead analysis and growth engineer at Analytical Solutions and Products B.V. (ASaP), an Amsterdam-based system integrator of LNG evaluation and sampling measurement systems used all over the world. “The use of Raman spectroscopy for LNG analysis is comparatively new, and it has already proven to be a extremely accurate, efficient, and usable compositional measurement software.”
The system can effectively stand up to direct contact with the pattern even in extreme hot and cold environments, excessive stress, and harsh corrosive situations.
RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY IN PRACTICE
Samples are collected using a 785nm excitation laser and a contact BallProbe that produces a unique spectral fingerprint that identifies the chemical composition and molecular construction in the LNG. The distribution of the spectral peaks describes the molecule’s composition, whereas the sign intensity correlates linearly with focus.
For easy-to-use business Raman spectroscopy instrumentation, ASaP works with Seattle-based MarqMetrix. Founded in 2012 by scientists from the University of Washington, the company focuses on compositional analysis utilizing Raman spectroscopy and has pioneered developments in Raman to be used within the energy sector.
MarqMetrix has engineered its all-in-one (AIO) system to supply identical and repeatable outcomes from unit to unit, in a package 80 % smaller than previous Raman devices. Each device is kind of an exact copy so common mathematical models may be applied throughout techniques to provide consistent outcomes. Previous Raman methods have been much less reliable as a end result of every system required its personal mathematical model and frequent recalibration for every installation.
The AIO system works with a broad selection of contact probes suitable for LNG purposes. The company’s BallProbe is on the market in Hastelloy C-276—a nickel molybdenum-chromium superalloy to resist extreme physical and chemical environments. The probe’s spherical sapphire lens can successfully stand up to direct contact with the pattern even in extreme cold and warm environments -256 to 662 levels Fahrenheit (-160 to 350 levels Celsius), excessive pressure (> four hundred bar), and harsh corrosive conditions.
“We work with MarqMetrix as a result of they’ve a high-quality Raman instrument,” says Mendez. “The company’s immersion optic probes, that are extensively used throughout the business, enable customers to attain reproducible measurements of samples better than 1 p.c accuracy.”
Each system is almost an actual copy so common mathematical fashions can be applied across methods.
DIRECT MEASUREMENT IN REAL TIME
Another significant advantage of Raman spectroscopy isn’t having to take fuel samples offline for measurement. Traditional methods like GC require an injection system to add a pattern fuel to a chromatography column that allows the components to separate, and a detector to sense when a component is existing the system. But first, the LNG must be converted from liquid to gaseous state without partial vaporization before a dependable measurement may be made.
With a Raman system, no consumables are required for testing. “The contact probe is positioned immediately into the LNG without having to manipulate the fuel, take if offline, or introduce a carrier gasoline,” explains Mendez. “With fewer steps concerned in measurement, the uncertainty is decreased therefore the measuring is much closer to the truth.”
Raman’s direct measurement of LNG produces readings each few seconds as in comparability with each three to five minutes or longer for traditional strategies.
“You want the real-time information, each time possible,” adds Mendez. “When it comes to a custody transfer, for instance, it is best to take many representative samples throughout the complete offloading process to a tanker or ship as potential.”
MarqMetrix has engineered its all-in-one (AIO) system to provide equivalent and repeatable results from unit to unit.
CALIBRATION AND PREDICTIVE MODELING
Although the MarqMetrix Raman gear can be utilized to establish the components in LNG inside approximately fifteen minutes of unboxing, quantifying the concentrations of every part first requires making a predictive mannequin.
To do this, ASaP establishes the accuracy of the Raman tools at one of its three analytical testing amenities by evaluating it in opposition to measurements produced by conventional GC gear, with LNG provided from a nearby filling station.
MarqMetrix’s BallProbe is out there in Hastelloy C-276—a nickel molybdenum-chromium superalloy to resist excessive physical and chemical environments.
“We make the most of certified GC testing instruments to produce a reference value that we know will be as close to the actual value as attainable,” explains Mendez. “We then take a measurement using the Raman tools and compare the 2 (correlate the two measurements to build the model). The next step is to calibrate the Raman with a liquified major fuel normal.”
“We take a variety of samples of LNG at completely different component concentrations and with the assistance of multivariate analysis we will create our predictive model,” provides Mendez. “Once the mannequin has been validated, ASaP shoppers not want to make use of GC and can use Raman exclusively for instantaneous readings of the LNG composition.
Accurate measurement is nowhere extra essential than ever within the LNG business. Understanding the chemical composition of uncooked materials and the consistency of processed products. With the developments made in making use of Raman spectroscopy systems to pattern measurement, LNG producers have a practical device for generating accurate real-time compositional measurements for his or her in-process and in-transit LNG sampling wants.
“With the supply of easy-to-use business instrumentation, the threshold to work with Raman spectroscopy has now turn out to be approachable and workable for LNG purposes,” says Mendez.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Marc Malone is vice president, enterprise operations and technique for MarqMetrix. MarqMetrix works with numerous recognizable world and private sector brands throughout a massive number of industries that embrace prescribed drugs, oil and gasoline, biotech, and meals and beverage For extra information, call 206.971.3625 or visit www.marqmetrix.com.
Share